Azithromycin belongs to the macrolides—azalides with a broad spectrum of antimicrobial action. The mechanism of action of azithromycin is related to interfering with bacterial protein synthesis via binding to the 50S-subunit of their ribosomes and preventing protein translation without any effect on the synthesis of polynucleotides.
Infections caused by microorganisms that are susceptible to azithromycin:
– ENT infections (bacterial pharyngitis/tonsillitis, sinusitis, otitis media)
– Respiratory tract infections (bacterial bronchitis, community-acquired pneumonia)
– Skin and soft tissue infections: migratory erythema (early stage of Lyme disease), erysipelas, impetigo, secondary pyodermatoses, moderate acne vulgaris
– Sexually transmitted diseases: uncomplicated genital infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis
Azicin should only be used in adults and children with a body weight of over 45 kg.
Azithromycin should be taken orally once daily not less than 1 hour before or 2 hours after a meal.
In ENT, respiratory, skin and soft tissue infections (not including chronic migratory erythema): 500 mg (1 tablet) once daily for 3 days.
In acne vulgaris, the recommended total dose of azithromycin is 6 g. It should be taken according to the following schedule: one 500 mg tablet once daily for 3 days, then one 500 mg tablet once weekly for 9 weeks. The second-week dose should be taken 7 days after the first tablet, the 8 subsequent doses are taken at 7-day intervals.
In migratory erythema: on day 1: 1 g (2 tablets once), from day 2 to 5: 500 mg (1 tablet) daily.
In sexually transmitted infections: 1 g (2 tablets) once. The course dose is 1 g.
If a dose is missed, it should be taken as soon as possible, the next dose should be taken after a 24-hour interval.
In case of renal failure with mild renal dysfunction (glomerular filtration rate 10–80 mL/min), it is possible to use the same doses as for a patient with normal renal function. Azithromycin should be administered with caution in patients with severe renal failure (glomerular filtration rate < 10 mL/min).
In case of liver failure, the drug should not be used in patients with severe liver disease, as azithromycin is metabolized in the liver and excreted in the bile. No studies have been conducted on azithromycin administration in such patients.