Pentoxifylline is a methylxanthine derivative. The mechanism of action of pentoxifylline is associated with phosphodiesterase inhibition and cAMP accumulation in vascular smooth muscle cells, blood cells, as well as in other tissues and organs.
Atherosclerotic encephalopathy; ischemic stroke; dyscirculatory encephalopathy; disorders of peripheral circulation caused by atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus (including diabetic angiopathy), inflammation; trophic disorders in tissues associated with venous lesions or microcirculatory disorders (post-thrombotic syndrome, trophic ulcers, gangrene, frostbite); obliterating endarteritis; angioneuropathy (Raynaud's disease); impaired ocular circulation (acute, subacute, chronic vascular insufficiency in the retina and choroid); impaired inner ear function of vascular aetiology accompanied by hearing loss.
Intravenous infusion is the most effective form of parenteral administration that is better tolerated. The dosage regimen is determined by the physician and depends on the severity of the circulatory disorder, body weight, and treatment tolerability. Infusion can be conducted only if the solution is transparent.
The following treatment regimens are recommended for adults
1. Intravenous infusion of 100–600 mg of pentoxifylline in 100–500 ml of Ringer's lactate solution, 0.9% sodium chloride solution or 5% glucose solution 1–2 times a day. The intravenous drip duration is 60–360 minutes, i.e. the administration of 100 mg of pentoxifylline should last at least 60 minutes. The infusion can be complemented with oral administration of pentoxifylline (400 mg) assuming that the maximum daily dose (infusion and oral) is 1,200 mg.
2. In a serious patient condition (especially in constant pain, gangrene or trophic ulcers), it is possible to infuse pentoxifylline for 24 hours. In this dosage regimen, the dose is determined according to a rate of 0.6 mg/kg/h. The calculated daily dose for a patient with a body weight of 70 kg is 1000 mg, for a patient with a body weight of 80 kg — 1150 mg. Regardless of the patient's body weight, the maximum daily dose is 1200 mg.
The volume of the infusion solution is calculated individually, taking into account the concomitant diseases, the condition of the patient, and averages 1–1.5 liters per day.
3. In some cases, the drug should be administered by intravenous injection of 5 ml.
(100 mg). The injection should be performed slowly, over 5 minutes, with the patient lying down.
The duration of parenteral treatment is determined by the attending physician. After the patient's condition improves, the treatment should be continued using the tablet dosage form.