Pentoxifylline is a derivative of methylxanthine. The mode of action of pentoxifylline is associated with inhibition of phosphodiesterase and cAMP accumulation in vascular smooth muscle cells, blood cells, as well as in other tissues and organs. Pentoxifylline slows down platelet and erythrocyte aggregation, increases their flexibility, decreases the increased plasma fibrinogen concentration, and enhances fibrinolysis, which decreases blood viscosity and improves its rheological properties. In addition, pentoxifylline has a weak myotropic vasodilatory effect, slightly decreases the overall peripheral vascular resistance and has a positive inotropic effect. Due to the use of pentoxifylline, microcirculation and tissue supply with oxygen are improved, most of all in the extremities, the CNS, and moderately in the kidneys. The drug slightly dilates the coronary vessels.
Atherosclerotic encephalopathy; ischemic cerebral stroke; dyscirculatory encephalopathy; disorders of peripheral circulation caused by atherosclerosis, diabetes (including diabetic angiopathy), inflammation; trophic disorders in tissues associated with vein lesions or microcirculatory disorders (post-thrombophlebitis syndrome, trophic ulcers, gangrene, frostbite); obliterating endarteritis; angioneuropathy (Raynaud's disease); impaired blood circulation of the eye (acute, subacute, chronic circulatory insufficiency in the retina and choroid); impaired function of the inner ear of the vascular genesis, accompanied by hearing loss.
At the first signs of anaphylactic / anaphylactoid reaction, treatment with the drug should be discontinued immediately.
In the case of administration of pentoxifylline to patients with chronic heart failure, the phase of compensation of blood circulation should be achieved first.
In patients with diabetes and receiving treatment with insulin or oral antidiabetic drugs, the use of high doses of the drug may increase the impact of these drugs on blood sugar levels. In these cases, the dose of insulin or oral antidiabetic drugs should be reduced and the patient should be carefully monitored.