Pentoxifylline is a methylxanthine derivative. The mechanism of action of pentoxifylline is associated with phosphodiesterase inhibition and cAMP accumulation in vascular smooth muscle cells, blood cells, as well as in other tissues and organs.
Atherosclerotic encephalopathy; ischemic stroke; dyscirculatory encephalopathy; disorders of peripheral circulation caused by atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus (including diabetic angiopathy), inflammation; trophic disorders in tissues associated with venous lesions or microcirculatory disorders (post-thrombotic syndrome, trophic ulcers, gangrene, frostbite); obliterating endarteritis; angioneuropathy (Raynaud's disease); impaired ocular circulation (acute, subacute, chronic vascular insufficiency in the retina and choroid); impaired inner ear function of vascular aetiology accompanied by hearing loss.
The drug should be prescribed at 2–4 tablets 2–3 times per day. The tablets should be taken after a meal without chewing, with a sufficient amount of liquid. The maximum daily dose should not exceed 1200 mg.
If hypotension, adverse reactions from the gastrointestinal tract or central nervous system develop, the initial dose may be reduced to 100 mg of pentoxifylline 3 times per day.
In impaired renal function (creatinine clearance <30 ml/min), a 50–70% reduced dose is used, according to the individual sensitivity.
Patients with severe hepatic dysfunction also require a dose reduction according to the individual sensitivity.
The drug is not indicated for use in children.